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Croatian Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Croatian grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Croatian and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Croatian and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Croatian.

Prepositions - Croatian
and i Audio
above iznad Audio
under ispod Audio
before prije Audio
after nakon Audio
in front of ispred Audio
behind iza Audio
far from daleko od Audio
near blizu Audio
in u Audio
inside unutra Audio
outside izvan Audio
with sa Audio
without bez Audio
about oko Audio
between između Audio
but ali Audio
for za Audio
from iz Audio
to na Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules - Croatian
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun] jedem bez noža Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition] živi u blizini crkve Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition] on je viši od nje Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun] došao je sa svojim malim psom Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun] možete li doći sa mnom? Audio

Negation in Croatian

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules - Croatian
I understand you
[affirmative form] ja vas razumijem Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb] ja vas ne razumijem Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective] ovo nije točna riječ Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation] ne ostavljajte me Audio
no problem
[negation + noun] nema problema Audio

Negative Sentences - Croatian
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense] ja ne govorim francuski Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense] ona nije posjetila njemačku Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb] on nas ne može vidjeti Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation] zna li ona igrati šah? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense] nećemo doći kasno Audio

Questions in Croatian

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English - Croatian
how? kako? Audio
what? što? Audio
who? tko? Audio
why? zašto? Audio
where? gdje? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules - Croatian
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb] gdje živite? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb] govori li ona kineski? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition] koliko je to? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb] mogu li vam pomoći? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition] kako se zovete? Audio

Adverbs in Croatian

It's time to learn the adverbs in Croatian. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs - Croatian
now sada Audio
yesterday jučer Audio
today danas Audio
tonight večeras Audio
tomorrow sutra Audio
soon uskoro Audio
quickly brzo Audio
slowly polako Audio
together zajedno Audio
very vrlo Audio
almost skoro Audio
always uvijek Audio
usually obično Audio
sometimes ponekad Audio
rarely rijetko Audio
never nikad Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules - Croatian
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb] razumijete li me sada? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb] trebam pomoć odmah Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective] ona je vrlo inteligentna Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb] uvijek ću te voljeti Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question] možemo li naučiti njemački zajedno? Audio

Pronouns in Croatian

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Croatian. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns - Croatian
I ja Audio
you ti (+ vi: as 2. person pl.) Audio
he on Audio
she ona Audio
we mi Audio
they oni Audio

Object Pronouns - Croatian
me mene Audio
you tebe (+vas: as 2. person pl.) Audio
him njega Audio
her nju Audio
us nas Audio
them njih Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Croatian
my moj Audio
your tvoj Audio
his njegov Audio
her njen Audio
our naš Audio
their njihov Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns - Croatian
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb] ja sam tvoj prijatelj Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb] govorite vrlo brzo Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb] on ima tri psa Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb] ona zna njemački Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun] nećemo doći kasno Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun] oni su kupili mlijeka i kruha Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns - Croatian
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun] možete li mi reći svoje ime? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun] ja ću vam dati novac Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun] napisala mu je pismo Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun] posjetili su je jučer Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun] može li nam ona pomoći? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun] dao im je hranu Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Croatian
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun] moje ime je maja Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun] tvoj brat živi ovdje Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun] njezina majka kuha za nas Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun] njegov hobi je čitanje knjiga Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun] naš san je posjetiti pariz Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun] njihova kuća nije daleko Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns - Croatian
this is my house ovo je moja kuća Audio
that restaurant is far taj restoran je daleko Audio
these apples are delicious te jabuke su ukusne Audio
those stars are shiny one zvijezde su sjajne Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Croatian grammar in this lesson. Please check out our main menu here for more lessons: homepage. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus

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