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Cebuano Grammar

Welcome to the 8th lesson about Cebuano grammar. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.

We will start with prepositions. In general, they are used to link words to other words. For example: I speak Cebuano and English the preposition is [and] because it connects both words Cebuano and English. The following is a list of the most used prepositions in Cebuano.

Prepositions - Cebuano
and ug Audio
above ibabaw Audio
under ilawm Audio
before wa pa Audio
after humana Audio
in front of sa atubangan sa Audio
behind sa likod Audio
far from layo sa Audio
near duol Audio
in sa Audio
inside sulod Audio
outside gawas Audio
with uban Audio
without nga wala Audio
about unsa Audio
between tungod Audio
but pero Audio
for para Audio
from gikan Audio
to inig Audio

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules - Cebuano
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun] mukaon ko nga walay kutsilyo Audio
she lives near the church
[verb + preposition] nagpuyo siya duol sa kapilya Audio
he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition] mas taas pa siya kaysa niya Audio
he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun] niabot siya uban iya gamay nga iro Audio
can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun] pwede ka muuban nako? Audio

Negation in Cebuano

Now let's learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example: Saying no, I can't, I don't ... The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules - Cebuano
I understand you
[affirmative form] nakasabot ko nimu Audio
I don't understand you
[negation + verb] wa ko kasabot nimu Audio
this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective] dili ni mao nga sinultian Audio
don't leave me
[imperative negation] ayaw ko biya-e Audio
no problem
[negation + noun] way problema Audio

Negative Sentences - Cebuano
I don't speak French
[negation + present tense] di ko musulti ug French Audio
she didn't visit Germany
[negation + past tense] wala siya nibisita sa Germany Audio
he cannot see us
[negative modal verb] di siya kita nato Audio
can't she play chess?
[interrogative negation] di siya kaduwa ug chess? Audio
we will not come late
[negation + future tense] di mi muabot nga ulhi Audio

Questions in Cebuano

Now let's learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as: what, why, can you ...? Here are some common examples:

English - Cebuano
how? giunsa? Audio
what? unsa? Audio
who? kinsa? Audio
why? nganu? Audio
where? asa? Audio

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence:

Questions + Rules - Cebuano
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb] asa ka nagpuyo? Audio
does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb] makastorya siya ug Chinese? Audio
how much is this?
[interrogative preposition] tagpila man ni? Audio
can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb] Pwede ko makatabang ko nimu? Audio
what is your name?
[interrogative preposition] unsa imu pangalan? Audio

Adverbs in Cebuano

It's time to learn the adverbs in Cebuano. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Adverbs - Cebuano
now karon Audio
yesterday gahapon Audio
today karon adlawa Audio
tonight unya gabi-e Audio
tomorrow ugma Audio
soon puhon Audio
quickly paspasay Audio
slowly Hinay-hinay Audio
together ubana Audio
very kaayo Audio
almost hapit Audio
always kanunay Audio
usually sa kanunay Audio
sometimes usahay Audio
rarely panagsa Audio
never dili jud Audio

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules - Cebuano
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb] kasabot naka nako karon? Audio
I need help immediately
[noun + adverb] nanginahanglan ko ug tabang karon dayun Audio
she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective] utukan siya kaayo Audio
I will always love you
[verb + adverb] pirmi tika higugmaon Audio
can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question] pwede mag-uban ug kat-on ug German? Audio

Pronouns in Cebuano

We're almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Cebuano. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languages, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languages. Here is a list of the most common ones:

Personal Pronouns - Cebuano
I ako Audio
you ikaw Audio
he siya Audio
she siya Audio
we kita Audio
they sila Audio

Object Pronouns - Cebuano
me nako Audio
you nimu Audio
him niya Audio
her niya Audio
us nato Audio
them nila Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Cebuano
my Ako-a Audio
your imuha Audio
his iyaha Audio
her iyaha Audio
our Ato-a Audio
their ilaha Audio

I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. The following examples use pronouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. We will start with the personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns - Cebuano
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb] migo man ko nimu Audio
you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb] paspasa man ka musulti Audio
he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb] naa siya'y tulo ka iro Audio
she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb] maskasulti siya ug German Audio
we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun] Di mi muabot nga ulhi Audio
they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun] nagpalit sila ug gatas ug pan Audio

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usually come after that verb. For example: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples:

Object Pronouns - Cebuano
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun] pwede ko nimu sultian sa imu pangalan? Audio
I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun] tagaan tika ug kwarta Audio
she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun] nagsuwat siya ug suwat para niya Audio
they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun] gibisita siya nila gahapon Audio
can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun] makatabang ba na siya nato? Audio
he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun] gihatagaan niya sila ug pagkaon Audio

Possessive Pronouns - Cebuano
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun] ako pangalan kay Maya Audio
your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun] imu igsuon nga lalaki kay nagpuyo diri Audio
her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun] iya inahan kay nagluto para namo Audio
his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun] ang iya lingaw kay magbasa ug libro Audio
our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun] ang amo damgo kay mubisita sa Paris Audio
their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun] di man layo ang ila balay Audio

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They're very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns - Cebuano
this is my house ako ni balay Audio
that restaurant is far kana nga kan-anan kay layo Audio
these apples are delicious kini nga mga mansanas kay lami Audio
those stars are shiny kadtong mga bituon kay sinaw Audio

I hope you learned a lot about the Cebuano grammar in this lesson. Please check out our main menu here for more lessons: homepage. The next lesson is below, have fun!

Inspirational Quote: First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Epictetus

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